I assume you can startup the machine and then you are placed at the command prompt. I am not which linux (distro) you use but as far as i can understand, it looks like some flavor of debian.
1. Installing a browser would be very easy if you have debian based distro...login as root
apt-get install mozilla-firefox
2. For Apache...are you on a network where access incoming http requests are blocked.
3. .tar.gz are generally zipped and archived source code files for a software. They are pretty much like the zip files on windows...you have to extract those files in order to see the contents.
extract tar.gz files
tar -zxvf filename.tar.gz
To see what that zipped archive contains without really extracting it
tar -tvf filename.tar.gz
It is clear that the "Community" is really not very kind to newbie's or MS converts which does not seem to make sense if the goal is to really spread Open Source. I fear that like most other things it is possibly just another "click" and they have to watch Newbie's "squirm" around for a few months until they "pay their dues" and then someone will help eventually help them.
NOT TRUE...everybody here was a newbie once and if they had had such an experience, this forums had already been non-existant.
Again, before you post you should atleast search this forum, search google. Remember, this is a voluntary forum, nobody is obligated to answer infact we all help because we have been helped before. So in order to help you, help us understand what your problem is with as much info you can provide.