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I caught the time, and missed the date of those posts.
Your prior posts indicated no sound as a regular user. The last post indicates that you may not have mp3 support. By the way, you can enter the command "groups". This command will print out the groups you are a member of.
Try playing a free format like ogg. The error you get in amarok could be due to a version built without mp3 support.
It is confusing why media players work as root, but not as regular user, yet, system sounds work as a regular user. Usually it is an all or nothing proposition. Whenever my sound quits working, I will run "alsaconf" followed by my distro's sound config tool.
A quick test could be to create a new user. Log in as that user and see if system sounds work. Then try playing an ogg using ogg123 or mplayer. Finally try an mp3 using mpg123 or mplayer. A program you launch from the terminal may provide more feedback.
If you can play ogg files, then your sound system is working. It is a matter of codecs or installing mp3 enabled package versions. I also don't know if you are using amarok 1.4 or amarok 2.0. Amarok 1.4 uses either xine or yuaup libraries for it's sound engine. Amarok 2.0 uses kde's phonon.
Make sure you have liblame and libmad installed. These are the most common mp3 libraries. Also install libfaad. This is used for AAC support.
The problem could also be that the player package was built without mp3 support enabled. If the repo package description said it plays mp3s, then it is probably just a matter of installing the library packages.
That's a different issue. Because you're not root or in the group root, you use the third triplet of letters, which lacks read permissions. Change that file's ownership and permissions (run man chmod and man chgrp) - should be owned by you and either the group users or the group with the same name as your username, and should have permissions like -rw-r--r-- or -rw-------.
You can use the "uid=<yourusername>,gid=<yourgroup>" mount options when mounting that ntfs XP partition. This will give you ownership rights. After that, you won't need to su to root to copy an mp3 file. Since the NTFS filesystem isn't a native Linux filesystem, the ownership & permissions of the directories & files are determined when it is mounted.