Here are the steps I took to get my older CD-ROM and newer CD-RW/DVD-ROM to copy an audio CD on-the-fly (no intermediate image file).
1) Make sure cdrdao and cdrecord are installed.
2) su to root and run "visudo"
3) Add the following line to the 'sudoers' file
# This will allow all members of the cdrom group to use cdrdao and cdrecord as root without a password
% cdrecord dev=ATAPI: -scanbus
as user to scan for CD readers/writers
5) Write down the device IDs of reader and writer
My CD-ROM is device ATAPI:0,1,0 and the CD-RW is device ATAPI:0,0,0
6) To copy a CD directly from the CD-ROM to the CD-RW, I run
sudo cdrdao copy --device ATAPI:0,0,0 --source-device ATAPI:0,1,0 --on-the-fly --buffers 256 --paranoia-mode 2
The '--buffers' command sets a 256 second buffer, to help prevent buffer underrun errors. cdrdao with automagically turn on BURN-Proof (or whatever else it is called). '--paranoia-mode 2' sets the level of "paranoia" to make sure the CD is read properly. Check out 'man cdrdao' for further information. When I've done this, the writing process shows two buffer percentages. With read and write speeds of 16x, the first buffer usually hits 0% after two or three tracks, but the other buffer continues to jump between 4 and 90% and the write finishes successfully.