This doesn't really have anything to do with ASCII vs. <any other encoding system>.
The responsible for ordering the information is the application that you use to see the file names. So depending on the program that you use to list them they might be ordered in a slightly different way. If you use, let's say "ls" to list your files, you should look into the ls man and/or info pages and search for the keyword "sort". However, I don't know if you will be able to find such fine grained degree of control on how ls will display your files. The same goes for any other program.
There're specific tools to sort stuff, for example, the "sort" command. You might be able to achieve a greater degree of control if you pipe the output of ls into sort,
ls | sort <whatever params you need>
I don't know of any easy and automatic way to do this globally.