It sounds like you have 2 separate problems that you want to resolve, with one depending on the other:
1. Be able to connect to your laptop from a remote location through the internet.
2. Use ssh tunneling to send web traffic through your laptop to bypass any restrictions from your current location
To solve issue 1, you will probably want to be able to connect to your home computer without having to remember a (probably dynamic) ip address, you can use one of the free dynamic dns services such as dyndns.com or no-ip.com. Your home router may already have the capability to update these services automatically when your home ip address changes. Then enable either a dmz to your ssh server or specify port forwarding for the ssh service.
To solve issue 2, set up an ssh tunnel, then set up your web browser to use the ssh tunnel. Here is a tutorial for how to do that: http://parabing.com/2011/04/01/ssh-t...e-web-surfing/
Note that the remote location that you are trying to connect from may very well block port 22 as well. You can modify the ssh server running from your home server to use a port that is not blocked (probably port 80).