Windows does this by copying the relevant files on logon and then copying them back on logoff.
This functionality can easily be achived by mounting the home directory to a different location and making bash scripts that
copies the configuration files and any other files essential for your operations to a home area on the laptop.
coping them back.
Depending on the environment you are using, it is very likely you can have these called automatically.
There are tools available that can generate local logins from an LDAP database. I've seen these about but haven't tried any yet. Alternatively, you could create a local login users (you can set up a computer to fall back to try local logins when ever an LDAP user doesn't exist).
There are probably tools already available to help with this. I'm very new to LDAP, so there are probably much better ways of achieving it.
Sorry I can't be more specific. The solution will vary heaps depending on you environment.