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Old 06-18-2011, 12:37 AM   #1
morriset
LQ Newbie
 
Registered: Jul 2010
Posts: 2

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Post Kernel panic - not syncing: Attempted to kill init, Pid: 1, comm: init Not tainted 2.



Hello,

I'm trying to run linux on an old computer, but unfortunately the kernel is crashing.

But first, let me tell you what I've done in order to you have an overview.

1. Compiled all core binaries and some utilities on an PIII desktop computer on a separate partition which is not used by the distro I'm using (Mandriva 2008.1)

2. Compiled the kernel using "make defconfig" in order to create a config file with the default symbol values. In this case, when the command finish, it says the values are for i386. After that, configure some general settings on the kernel to extend the compatibility (i.e. IDE support)

3. Modified the GRUB configuration, to boot the new kernel and to point the root device and init file.

4. Booted linux with no problem, yeah!

5. Now, what I did was to make a full copy of this partition, including the kernel, and move it to another old Laptop using a Celeron Coppermine processor. Configured a GRUB rescue floppy disk.

6. Boot from Floppy, enter the boot options manually and the computer was able to boot.

7. I performed the same previous 5th and 6th steps but unfortunatelly the kernel is getting into panic. Here is the console capture:


[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[ 0.000000] Linux version 2.6.39.1 (root@localhost) (gcc version 4.4.3 (GCC)
[ 0.000000] BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
[ 0.000000] BIOS-e820: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009f400 (usable)
[ 0.000000] BIOS-e820: 000000000009f400 - 00000000000a0000 (reserved)
[ 0.000000] BIOS-e820: 00000000000f0c00 - 0000000000100000 (reserved)
[ 0.000000] BIOS-e820: 0000000000100000 - 0000000004000000 (usable)
[ 0.000000] BIOS-e820: 00000000ffff0c00 - 0000000100000000 (reserved)
[ 0.000000] Notice: NX (Execute Disable) protection missing in CPU!
[ 0.000000] DMI not present or invalid.
[ 0.000000] last_pfn = 0x4000 max_arch_pfn = 0x100000
[ 0.000000] init_memory_mapping: 0000000000000000-0000000004000000
[ 0.000000] 64MB LOWMEM available.
[ 0.000000] mapped low ram: 0 - 04000000
[ 0.000000] low ram: 0 - 04000000
[ 0.000000] Zone PFN ranges:
[ 0.000000] DMA 0x00000010 -> 0x00001000
[ 0.000000] Normal 0x00001000 -> 0x00004000
[ 0.000000] Movable zone start PFN for each node
[ 0.000000] early_node_map[2] active PFN ranges
[ 0.000000] 0: 0x00000010 -> 0x0000009f
[ 0.000000] 0: 0x00000100 -> 0x00004000
[ 0.000000] Using APIC driver default
[ 0.000000] SMP: Allowing 1 CPUs, 0 hotplug CPUs
[ 0.000000] No local APIC present or hardware disabled
[ 0.000000] APIC: disable apic facility
[ 0.000000] APIC: switched to apic NOOP
[ 0.000000] Allocating PCI resources starting at 4000000 (gap: 4000000:fbff0c
[ 0.000000] setup_percpu: NR_CPUS:4 nr_cpumask_bits:4 nr_cpu_ids:1 nr_node_id
[ 0.000000] PERCPU: Embedded 12 pages/cpu @c3800000 s25920 r0 d23232 u4194304
[ 0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on. Total pag
[ 0.000000] Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,1)/vmlinux-2.6.39.1a root=/d
[ 0.000000] PID hash table entries: 256 (order: -2, 1024 bytes)
[ 0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[ 0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.000000] Initializing CPU#0
[ 0.000000] Memory: 58160k/65536k available (3448k kernel code, 6924k reserve
[ 0.000000] virtual kernel memory layout:
[ 0.000000] fixmap : 0xfff67000 - 0xfffff000 ( 608 kB)
[ 0.000000] vmalloc : 0xc4800000 - 0xfff65000 ( 951 MB)
[ 0.000000] lowmem : 0xc0000000 - 0xc4000000 ( 64 MB)
[ 0.000000] .init : 0xc14d7000 - 0xc152d000 ( 344 kB)
[ 0.000000] .data : 0xc135e1f9 - 0xc14d6400 (1504 kB)
[ 0.000000] .text : 0xc1000000 - 0xc135e1f9 (3448 kB)
[ 0.000000] Checking if this processor honours the WP bit even in supervisor
[ 0.000000] SLUB: Genslabs=15, HWalign=32, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, N
[ 0.000000] Hierarchical RCU implementation.
[ 0.000000] RCU-based detection of stalled CPUs is disabled.
[ 0.000000] NR_IRQS:2304 nr_irqs:256 16
[ 0.000000] Console: colour VGA+ 80x25
[ 0.000000] console [ttyS0] enabled
[ 0.000000] Fast TSC calibration using PIT
[ 0.000000] Detected 360.798 MHz processor.
[ 0.003034] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer fr
[ 0.005031] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[ 0.006337] Security Framework initialized
[ 0.008112] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[ 0.012212] Initializing cgroup subsys ns
[ 0.013047] ns_cgroup deprecated: consider using the 'clone_children' flag wi
[ 0.015028] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[ 0.016069] Initializing cgroup subsys freezer
[ 0.018862] SMP alternatives: switching to UP code
[ 0.044945] Freeing SMP alternatives: 16k freed
[ 0.046846] weird, boot CPU (#0) not listed by the BIOS.
[ 0.047036] SMP motherboard not detected.
[ 0.048027] Local APIC not detected. Using dummy APIC emulation.
[ 0.049020] SMP disabled
[ 0.050033] Performance Events: no PMU driver, software events only.
[ 0.056714] Brought up 1 CPUs
[ 0.057055] Total of 1 processors activated (721.59 BogoMIPS).
[ 0.060371] devtmpfs: initialized
[ 0.063388] kworker/u:0 used greatest stack depth: 7480 bytes left
[ 0.068535] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[ 0.081436] PCI: PCI BIOS revision 2.10 entry at 0xfdb26, last bus=0
[ 0.082023] PCI: Using configuration type 1 for base access
[ 0.086173] kworker/u:0 used greatest stack depth: 7384 bytes left
[ 0.096214] kworker/u:0 used greatest stack depth: 7380 bytes left
[ 0.226657] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
[ 0.233294] vgaarb: loaded
[ 0.238316] SCSI subsystem initialized
[ 0.247895] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[ 0.249362] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[ 0.251380] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[ 0.257633] PCI: Probing PCI hardware
[ 0.265528] vgaarb: device added: PCI:0000:00:12.0,decodes=io+mem,owns=io+mem
[ 0.272540] pci 0000:00:01.0: OPTI IRQ router [1045:c700]
[ 0.278370] NetLabel: Initializing
[ 0.279008] NetLabel: domain hash size = 128
[ 0.279991] NetLabel: protocols = UNLABELED CIPSOv4
[ 0.281234] NetLabel: unlabeled traffic allowed by default
[ 0.282157] Switching to clocksource pit
[ 0.406898] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 9: assigned [mem 0x04000000-0x07ffffff pref
[ 0.408765] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 10: assigned [mem 0x08000000-0x0bffffff]
[ 0.410262] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 9: assigned [mem 0x0c000000-0x0fffffff pref
[ 0.411051] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 10: assigned [mem 0x10000000-0x13ffffff]
[ 0.412547] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 0: assigned [mem 0x14000000-0x14000fff]
[ 0.413784] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 0: set to [mem 0x14000000-0x14000fff] (PCI
[ 0.415536] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 0: assigned [mem 0x14001000-0x14001fff]
[ 0.416761] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 0: set to [mem 0x14001000-0x14001fff] (PCI
[ 0.418507] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 7: assigned [io 0x1000-0x10ff]
[ 0.419112] pci 0000:00:0a.0: BAR 8: assigned [io 0x1400-0x14ff]
[ 0.420763] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 7: assigned [io 0x1800-0x18ff]
[ 0.422365] pci 0000:00:0a.1: BAR 8: assigned [io 0x1c00-0x1cff]
[ 0.422971] pci 0000:00:0a.0: CardBus bridge to [bus 01-04]
[ 0.424636] pci 0000:00:0a.0: bridge window [io 0x1000-0x10ff]
[ 0.425229] pci 0000:00:0a.0: bridge window [io 0x1400-0x14ff]
[ 0.425825] pci 0000:00:0a.0: bridge window [mem 0x04000000-0x07ffffff pref
[ 0.427599] pci 0000:00:0a.0: bridge window [mem 0x08000000-0x0bffffff]
[ 0.427767] pci 0000:00:0a.1: CardBus bridge to [bus 05-08]
[ 0.429429] pci 0000:00:0a.1: bridge window [io 0x1800-0x18ff]
[ 0.430022] pci 0000:00:0a.1: bridge window [io 0x1c00-0x1cff]
[ 0.431618] pci 0000:00:0a.1: bridge window [mem 0x0c000000-0x0fffffff pref
[ 0.432390] pci 0000:00:0a.1: bridge window [mem 0x10000000-0x13ffffff]
[ 0.433609] pci 0000:00:0a.0: can't find IRQ for PCI INT A; please try using
[ 0.434733] pci 0000:00:0a.1: can't find IRQ for PCI INT B; please try using
[ 0.436609] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[ 0.437452] IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.439964] TCP established hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.441392] TCP bind hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.442539] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 2048 bind 2048)
[ 0.443117] TCP reno registered
[ 0.443798] UDP hash table entries: 128 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.445578] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 128 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.447016] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[ 0.451122] platform rtc_cmos: registered platform RTC device (no PNP device
[ 0.459535] microcode: CPU0: family 5 not supported
[ 0.465094] audit: initializing netlink socket (disabled)
[ 0.466253] type=2000 audit(1308350974.465:1): initialized
[ 0.566031] HugeTLB registered 4 MB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
[ 0.663917] kworker/u:0 used greatest stack depth: 7368 bytes left
[ 0.670099] NTFS driver 2.1.30 [Flags: R/W].
[ 0.675387] msgmni has been set to 113
[ 0.687056] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 2
[ 0.688568] io scheduler noop registered
[ 0.689132] io scheduler deadline registered
[ 0.690307] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[ 0.693412] neofb 0000:00:12.0: found PCI INT A -> IRQ 11
[ 0.695855] neofb: mapped io at c4880000
[ 0.697556] Autodetected internal display
[ 0.698518] Panel is a 800x600 color dual scan display
[ 0.700841] neofb: mapped framebuffer at c4b00000
[ 3.220716] neofb v0.4.2: 2048kB VRAM, using 800x600, 37.878kHz, 60Hz
[ 3.221699] Switching to clocksource tsc
[ 3.224668] fbcon: MagicGraph 128X (fb0) is primary device
[ 3.568102] Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 100x37
[ 3.599299] fb0: MagicGraph 128X frame buffer device
[ 3.603580] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 4 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
[ 3.850343] serial8250: ttyS0 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
[ 4.442448] Non-volatile memory driver v1.3
[ 4.843372] [drm] Initialized drm 1.1.0 20060810
[ 5.288079] Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 1.44M
[ 5.685889] FDC 0 is a post-1991 82077
[ 6.081236] kworker/u:0 used greatest stack depth: 7144 bytes left
[ 6.684366] brd: module loaded
[ 6.998773] loop: module loaded
[ 7.298453] Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver
[ 7.733260] opti621 0000:00:14.0: IDE controller (0x1045:0xd568 rev 0x30)
[ 8.382996] opti621 0000:00:14.0: not 100% native mode: will probe irqs later
[ 9.314090] Clocksource tsc unstable (delta = 5093073519 ns)
[ 9.855601] Switching to clocksource pit
[ 10.241157] hda: TOSHIBA MK6411MAT, ATA DISK drive
[ 11.220995] hdc: TOSHIBA CD-ROM XM-1902B, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive
[ 11.530880] ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
[ 11.534286] ide1 at 0x170-0x177,0x376 on irq 15
[ 11.539743] ide-gd driver 1.18
[ 11.540522] hda: max request size: 128KiB
[ 12.156067] hda: 12685680 sectors (6495 MB), CHS=13424/15/63
[ 12.158156] hda: cache flushes not supported
[ 12.220186] hda: hda1 hda2 hda3 hda4
[ 12.243639] e100: Intel(R) PRO/100 Network Driver, 3.5.24-k2-NAPI
[ 12.244353] e100: Copyright(c) 1999-2006 Intel Corporation
[ 12.247952] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[ 12.254307] console [netcon0] enabled
[ 12.255008] netconsole: network logging started
[ 12.256242] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.0: CardBus bridge found [0e11:b0c3]
[ 12.379532] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.0: Yenta TI113x: using isa irq 9 for Car
[ 12.502401] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.0: ISA IRQ mask 0x00b8, PCI irq 9
[ 12.503660] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.0: Socket status: 30000010
[ 12.508165] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.1: CardBus bridge found [0e11:b0c3]
[ 12.631378] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.1: Yenta TI113x: using isa irq 7 for Car
[ 12.754258] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.1: ISA IRQ mask 0x0038, PCI irq 7
[ 12.755467] yenta_cardbus 0000:00:0a.1: Socket status: 30000007
[ 12.762338] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[ 12.764862] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 'Open' Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[ 12.766225] ohci_hcd 0000:00:13.0: found PCI INT A -> IRQ 10
[ 12.767425] ohci_hcd 0000:00:13.0: OHCI Host Controller
[ 12.769540] ohci_hcd 0000:00:13.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus numbe
[ 12.770356] ohci_hcd 0000:00:13.0: irq 10, io mem 0xfecff000
[ 12.824249] usb usb1: New USB device found, idVendor=1d6b, idProduct=0001
[ 12.825437] usb usb1: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=
[ 12.826201] usb usb1: Product: OHCI Host Controller
[ 12.827289] usb usb1: Manufacturer: Linux 2.6.39.1 ohci_hcd
[ 12.827947] usb usb1: SerialNumber: 0000:00:13.0
[ 12.832172] hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
[ 12.833201] hub 1-0:1.0: 2 ports detected
[ 12.835951] uhci_hcd: USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver
[ 12.840324] usbcore: registered new interface driver usblp
[ 12.840782] Initializing USB Mass Storage driver...
[ 12.843061] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[ 12.844384] USB Mass Storage support registered.
[ 12.846535] usbcore: registered new interface driver libusual
[ 12.850979] i8042: PNP: No PS/2 controller found. Probing ports directly.
[ 12.855837] serio: i8042 KBD port at 0x60,0x64 irq 1
[ 12.857331] serio: i8042 AUX port at 0x60,0x64 irq 12
[ 12.863832] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[ 12.871813] rtc_cmos rtc_cmos: rtc core: registered rtc_cmos as rtc0
[ 12.873759] rtc0: alarms up to one day, 114 bytes nvram
[ 12.878981] Linux telephony interface: v1.00
[ 12.879968] ixj driver initialized.
[ 12.881152] cpuidle: using governor ladder
[ 12.882396] cpuidle: using governor menu
[ 12.884002] input: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard as /devices/platform/i8042/se
[ 12.906790] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
[ 12.908651] usbhid: USB HID core driver
[ 12.916673] sb: Init: Starting Probe...
[ 12.920085] sb: Init: Done
[ 12.923350] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[ 12.924123] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (909 buckets, 3636 max)
[ 12.928928] ctnetlink v0.93: registering with nfnetlink.
[ 12.934447] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[ 12.936083] TCP cubic registered
[ 12.937177] Initializing XFRM netlink socket
[ 12.947080] NET: Registered protocol family 10
[ 12.957801] ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[ 12.960412] IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling driver
[ 12.970023] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[ 12.971793] Registering the dns_resolver key type
[ 12.973824] Using IPI No-Shortcut mode
[ 12.979181] registered taskstats version 1
[ 13.382593] pcmcia_socket pcmcia_socket0: pccard: PCMCIA card inserted into s
[ 13.536433] Synaptics Touchpad, model: 1, fw: 4.6, id: 0xf5ca1, caps: 0x80471
[ 13.573610] input: SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad as /devices/platform/i8042/seri
[ 14.077667] EXT3-fs: barriers not enabled
[ 14.094823] kjournald starting. Commit interval 5 seconds
[ 14.096664] EXT3-fs (hda3): mounted filesystem with writeback data mode
[ 14.098326] VFS: Mounted root (ext3 filesystem) readonly on device 3:3.
[ 14.099130] Freeing unused kernel memory: 344k freed
[ 14.105271] Write protecting the kernel text: 3452k
[ 14.106679] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 1268k
[ 14.331638] init used greatest stack depth: 6048 bytes left
[ 14.333471] Kernel panic - not syncing: Attempted to kill init!
[ 14.334438] Pid: 1, comm: init Not tainted 2.6.39.1 #1
[ 14.335482] Call Trace:
[ 14.336691] [<c13565cb>] panic+0x50/0x141
[ 14.337942] [<c103067e>] do_exit+0x91/0x6a9
[ 14.338795] [<c1030cfb>] do_group_exit+0x65/0x8e
[ 14.340266] [<c103b8b9>] get_signal_to_deliver+0x319/0x330
[ 14.340950] [<c1002ac4>] ? do_coprocessor_segment_overrun+0x52/0x52
[ 14.341513] [<c1001cc2>] do_signal+0x5a/0x526
[ 14.343053] [<c135a82a>] ? do_page_fault+0x324/0x34e
[ 14.343799] [<c135a82a>] ? do_page_fault+0x324/0x34e
[ 14.344562] [<c10071bd>] ? sys_execve+0x46/0x4f
[ 14.345705] [<c135829e>] ? work_notifysig+0x13/0x25
[ 14.347126] [<c1357929>] ? down_write+0xb/0x22
[ 14.347938] [<c1002ac4>] ? do_coprocessor_segment_overrun+0x52/0x52
[ 14.348497] [<c10021b1>] do_notify_resume+0x23/0x58
[ 14.349918] [<c135829e>] work_notifysig+0x13/0x25
[ 14.350696] [<c1002ac4>] ? do_coprocessor_segment_overrun+0x52/0x52



- This computer where the Kernel is in panic, is an old Laptop AMD-K6 processor 64MB RAM (Compaq 1275). First thought it may be some issues regarding the processor and recompiled the Kernel pointing to this specific processor model.

-Verified that fstab is configured properly.
/dev/hda1 -> /boot
/dev/hda2 -> swap
/dev/hda3 -> /
/dev/hda4 -> /home

-First I thought it might be a problem with the HDD and tested the boot with another parameter such as sda for example and other init path, the kernel drops an error and drops a list of the hdaX partitions which this HDD has, or is not able to find the init with the incorrect path. Which is fine. The console shows at "10.241157" the IDE is working. So I discarded that the problem is IDE recognition.

-Compiled older versions of the Kernel such as 2.6.24.4 and the results are the same. The kernel recognizes the IDE, mounts ext3 and then it panics when it tries to get INIT working.

-For now I'm not concerned about other drivers such as audio or ethernet, first I'd like to boot, and then try to get the modules loaded.

Do you have any other suggestions?
 
Old 06-18-2011, 06:18 AM   #2
business_kid
Guru
 
Registered: Jan 2006
Location: Ireland
Distribution: Slackware & Android
Posts: 6,616

Rep: Reputation: 585Reputation: 585Reputation: 585Reputation: 585Reputation: 585Reputation: 585
The old k6-2. They were good at the time. Early ones freaked all windows versions because they executed some instruction too fast, and windows had that stuck in some internal timer loop which barfed. "Unable to initialise device IOS" or the like. The kernel had a problem at the time also, iirc, but it was sorted in a week.

Can you grab a livecd, (e.g.http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/livecd/) and build a kernel on the box itself?
 
Old 07-02-2011, 08:29 AM   #3
Karl Godt
Member
 
Registered: Mar 2010
Location: Kiel , Germany
Distribution: once:SuSE6.2,Debian3.1, aurox9.2+3,Mandrake?,DSL? then:W7st,WVHB, #!8.10.02,PUPPY4.3.1 now:Macpup
Posts: 308

Rep: Reputation: 45
Quote:
[ 0.000000] Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,1)/vmlinux-2.6.39.1a root=/d
/dev/hda1 -> /boot
/dev/hda2 -> swap
/dev/hda3 -> /
/dev/hda4 -> /home
It looks like your bootloader menu.lst contains cutted entries ...
Quote:
-First I thought it might be a problem with the HDD and tested the boot with another parameter such as sda for example and other init path, the kernel drops an error and drops a list of the hdaX partitions which this HDD has, or is not able to find the init with the incorrect path. Which is fine. The console shows at "10.241157" the IDE is working. So I discarded that the problem is IDE recognition.
You should post the menu entry and
Code:
cat /proc/cmdline
to avoid confusion .
 
Old 07-02-2011, 09:04 AM   #4
Karl Godt
Member
 
Registered: Mar 2010
Location: Kiel , Germany
Distribution: once:SuSE6.2,Debian3.1, aurox9.2+3,Mandrake?,DSL? then:W7st,WVHB, #!8.10.02,PUPPY4.3.1 now:Macpup
Posts: 308

Rep: Reputation: 45
Quote:
5. Now, what I did was to make a full copy of this partition, including the kernel, and move it to another old Laptop using a Celeron Coppermine processor. Configured a GRUB rescue floppy disk.
You only mention the kernel , but not the modules ...
Quote:
-Compiled older versions of the Kernel such as 2.6.24.4 and the results are the same. The kernel recognizes the IDE, mounts ext3 and then it panics when it tries to get INIT working.
Is your init a script or a binary ?

I could suggest something like
Code:
mv `which init` `which init`.bin
echo '#!/bin/sh

echo -n "running depmod ... " >/dev/console
depmod
echo "done" >/dev/console
echo >/dev/console
echo -n "want to drop into shell (y) ? " >/dev/console
read -t 20 KEY
echo >/dev/console
if [ "$KEY" = "Y" -o "$KEY" ="y" ] ; then
chroot . sh
else
exec init.bin
fi

'>/sbin/init
which would give you the chance to quit the init and running commands .

Other than that , make defconfig supplies only a minimal configuration .
Under the 2000-4000 menu points left there are hidden traps like "enable embedded" for example .

I also thought , that it would be easy ,
but to configure a kernel takes hours if you don't apply an
already made dot.config .

And still I have not understood many of the kernel features .
 
  


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