[SOLVED] Can't mount ntfs partition after recompiling the kernel
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That is a bit odd, as it indicates a problem with parsing the partition table.
If /dev/sdc has a GPT partition table or has been converted to a "Dynamic Disc" in Windows, things like this can happen. However, both these partitioning schemes always contain at least one regular MBR partition, so I would expect to see /dev/sdc1 anyway.
What's the output of fdisk -l /dev/sdc when you're running the new kernel?
[ 1.394092] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc] CDB:
[ 1.394633] end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 0
[ 1.394703] Buffer I/O error on device sdc, logical block 0
[ 1.567532] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc]
[ 1.567665] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc]
[ 1.568897] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc]
[ 1.569077] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc] CDB:
[ 1.569616] end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 0
[ 1.569685] Buffer I/O error on device sdc, logical block 0
[ 1.578837] Dev sdc: unable to read RDB block 0 <-- ?
[ 1.578962] sdc: unable to read partition table
[ 1.579612] sdc: detected capacity change from 0 to 500107862016
[ 1.580043] sdc: detected capacity change from 0 to 500107862016
[ 1.580375] sd 3:0:1:0: [sdc] Attached SCSI disk
How to restore the partition table?
You say you can still access the drive if you reboot and select the older kernel, right? That means there's nothing wrong with the drive and any attempts to "repair" the partition table is likely to cause data loss.
This could be a problem with the SATA controller driver. Could you post the output of lspci -v?
RDB stands for either Receive Data Buffer or Rigid Disk Block. It may be assuming it is an Amiga disk before continuing trying to check for an MBR on the disk.
However IO errors could indicate a flakey drive. Boot up with the old kernel and check the messages again.
NTFS is not a good choice for Linux. If you are not dual-booting or using an external drive and sharing with a Windows machine, then back up the files and restore to a Native linux file system. The ntfs repair tool only fixes simple errors and marks the drive as needing checking when you boot to windows.