dgoddard, the people you want to give handouts to: are they your co-workers, or your customers, or business partners?
What's your country? That could make helping you a bit easier.
As a warning: this post might be outdated because I'm not up-to-date with the current hardware solutions.
If they are your co-workers, you probably don't need to worry as much about the quality, as you should with customers and business partners.
So as far as your co-workers, why not skip all the printing, and just focus on scanning, editing, and then using either email, or file-sharing tools (SAMBA etc.).
If they are customers, or business partners, you either should know what tools they're using, or offer them a solution, that will be the most compatible with their tools.
The more you'll know about them, the more accurate your spendings will be.
Printing is more expensive than copying (printers versus copy machines), so it's better to print one copy, and then multiply it using a copy-machine, then it is to print all the copies,
especially if most documents are black and white. If you could scan the documents, and then transform them from color into black and white, that would make things easier too. But again, depending on the targeted audience, and on the type of your business, they might prefer color copies, so you have to decide.
So, wherever you can, use dithering, gradients of black color, and patterns, and use a copy machine.
Maybe you can rent some of the equipment, that you would otherwise have to buy for a high price?
For example if you want to make a slideshow presentation using Open Office, you might want to rent a projector, as those can be pretty expensive.
If quality is less important, you could use the old way:
Did you think about video conferencing? How about the classroom style: what the lecturer has on the screen, is also displayed on the other screens in the room.
It pretty much all depends on what you have, and what they have, and on how to optimally meet the two sides.
From my experience, the last option, in your point A (scanner-printer in one device), is the most expensive to use in the long run, but it's convenient.
As far as ink printers, one of the major differences are the printheads.
Depending on the printer's make/brand and model, the printheads go together with the ink cartridge, or are built-in the printer, and you just replace or refill the ink container.
There are advantages and disadvantages to each solution.
If the printheads go together with the ink cartridge, you get new printheads every time you replace the cartridge (convenient), but it's more expensive.
On the other hand, if they are built-in, and you just replace the ink container, you will have to clean the printheads sooner or later, depending on how you're using the printer, and that can be pretty expensive (unless you get to know how to do it).
As far as B, try newegg.com, but there are others. Search the internet for the best online computer hardware stores in your country/area.
Advice: always look at other things besides the price itself: warranty, other conditions such as return policies, RMA (Returned Materials/Merchandise Authorization) etc.
One of the most important things in scanners is the optical (hardware) resolution (versus interpolated, which is "software-simulated").