Thanks for good information
Because the problem is happening under CentOS and WXP on one computer and under WXP on another computer it is unlikely to be related to either OS or hardware which leaves only one thing -- the USB Transcend Hard Drive itself.
CentOS may have reported some hardware interface errors in the /var/log/* files. WXP may have something in the logs visible via Event Viewer (?).
You could check the file system using CHKDSK on WXP. Maybe something similar as part of ntfs-3g on CentOS.