Well.. I'm no expert by any means, but... If it's the root filesystem, it will automatically run fsck during boot, to fix it.
Mounting it and having a look around, you might not really be able to see any damage yourself. It might 'look' fine, but still have errors somewhere.
If you want to mount it, boot a live CD or load another OS on your machine, then mount this messed up partition 'Read-Only' and then CHROOT into it.
Again, as far as mounting it in the circumstances that it is the root partition of a system which you are actually booting, it's going to want to run fsck. There *might* be a flag you can set on either fsck or on reboot that will skip fsck, but I can't recall if/what it is.
Success stories vary, but personally I haven't had anything go terribly wrong with fsck; I haven't lost any data or files, with the exception of stuff like the open status of my browser for crash recovery, or files I have had open in 'kwrite' when I rebooted, that sort of thing. But, I use Ext2 and e2fsck. Don't know what difference it makes, but, that's just my own experience.
Why not just TRY what you want: run fsck -N and then remount it RO or RW, and see what happens?