This is your grub error 17:
Grub Error 17 : Cannot mount selected partition
This error is returned if the partition requested exists, but the
filesystem type cannot be recognized by GRUB.
If I were in your situation, I'd boot the liveCD and run fsck on /dev/sdb5 which is your Linux partition.
Then try to mount the partition while booted into the liveCD: mount /dev/sdb5 /mnt. If it mounts without errors try rebooting without the liveCD. If mount fails, take note of any errors you get so that you can report those errors here.
As an alternative, since you have pulled your /home off the drive, you can re-install Linux without loosing anything.