Wow, for an "inexperienced" user, you did an EXCELLENT job in getting information about the disks.
That said, is Ubuntu just not mounting the disk? Try this:
blkid | grep /dev/sda5
Once you have done that (you might have to put sudo in front of the command), tell me what "type" it is (vfat, ext3, ext4, and so on).
Once you have figured out the type, try this:
sudo mkdir /media/mydisk
mount -t ext4 /dev/sda5 /media/mydisk
REPLACE ext4 WITH WHATEVER TYPE YOURS IS
Now you should see the disk mounted in the /media/mydisk directory and you should be able to see the files.
Now, because your info gathering skills were definitely there, I'm going to guess that this was way too simple of a solution and that there is something waaaay more complicated. If not, then good riddens!