I would have asked to check out Wammu
, but according to their phone database your Samsung model isn't supported (as of now, at least). You can (should) of course search for similar software that does support your phone model, but I don't know any I could recommend. If the phone can use Bluetooth (it's not familiar to me, so I'm not sure, but nowadays most of them seem to have bt radio), you should be able to send files to and from the phone over it without a problem; just get a bluetooth adapter for your computer (the small usb dongles cost about 10-20€ today, so that shouldn't be a big obstacle if you can buy a phone) and that's done. Calendar sync then would require some extra software on your computer..
If the phone doesn't have a setting for it nor does it ask you how you'd like it to work when you plug the USB cable in, you probably can't use it (easily at least) as a regular mass storage media. Some phones seem to act as mass storage devices right away when you plug them in (and some other portable devices too), some don't do it at all and some phones detect when you connect them (trough USB) to a computer and ask you if you'd like the phone to work as mass storage or use some more special way of "talking" to the other end. For example Nokia phones let you choose between "Nokia mode", "printing and media" and "data storage".
One option then is, if you use a memory card in the phone, to use a memory card reader to transfer data between it and your computer. Obviously this requires you to remove the card from your phone any time you do it, so it's probably a pain..not least because some phones have the card in a nasty place like behind the battery, and if I'm not mistaken, want you to shut the phone down while taking the card out or plugging it in.