Windows' "Active Directory" technology is
So, yes, "it is possible."
The Linux subsystem that you need to look into is called PAM = Pluggable Authentication Modules.
In any modern Linux system, all of the key "authentication" tasks are vectored through this one highly-configurable subsystem.
As the name implies, the system works by means of a series of "pluggable modules" that will be invoked by the kernel in a specified sequence. The "default" configuration is one that mimics what every stand-alone Unix-compatible system does "by default." But Linux isn't actually limited to that, thanks to PAM. One of the modules that's available is one that consults LDAP. Therefore, Linux can
be configured to query an authoritative LDAP (nee
AD ...) server and thus "play nicely with others."
... for example.
Certainly, if what you need is "single sign-on," this is
very achievable, and this is
the way to do it. ("Kerberos" is another way to do it, and of course there are PAM modules for that, too.)