In general, Linux distributions follow the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy for directories under the root of the filesystem.
In conjuction with that Hierarchy, there a filesystem types:
a) ext2 - the native Linux filesystem.
b) ext3 - the native Linux filesystem, with journaling, which makes recovery from sudden power loss as easy as rebooting.
c) other journaling filesystems, such as reiserFS, JFS, XFS.
You would probably want one of the journaling filesystems. The easiest to apply is ext3. Each has advantages and disadvantages. You should investigate them, research their strengths and weaknesses, then decide which to use.