Sorry for not replying for so long, which I guess only hurts me in the long run.
The utility SkyEye provided (which I already found before posting the first time) only lets you tab between choices of Courier font sizes. In essence, that setting changes the value of "printfont." Also, when I actually print, it tries to re-load the color scheme, and somehow failed to do so if I used one from my own home directory instead of the system wide location. Oh, and changing the dialog from <Courier_h8> to <Courier_h10> doesn't ACTUALLY change the font the printer uses---go figure. Nor does changing the value of "printfont" manually or in ~/.gvimrc. There also isn't a choice for a non-Courier typeface.
The answer seems to be, "no, you're not doing anything wrong," and, "no, you can't change the typeface VIM uses to make hard copies."
If anyone who has gotten VIM 7.x for GNU/Linux to change its output typeface (or font size), please let us know what you did (precisely) so I can attempt to repeat it.