No - not if you're doing them from the CLI.
The "Recycle Bin" and "Trash" are a function performed by the GUI (Win32 "Explorer", "Gnome", "KDE" etc). Working directory at the CLI ("bash" etc) doesn't provide this functionality.
You might be able to do something funky with an alias in bash to alias 'rm' to 'mv' so bash will actually move the files you are trying to delete to /trash or something similar. I'm not sure, that's a bit over my head, but someone else may be able to elaborate...