Gentoo | Kernel Images plötzlich nicht mehr in /boot, sondern in / ?
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So did you remember to mount it before copying your new kernel(s) there? If not you are placing them in a directory '/boot' which actually lives on the '/' partition, hence why grub cannot find them if it is looking for the images on a boot partition.
if /boot isn't mounted, the directory /boot exists, but it's empty.
So I think I did it the right way, did I?
That is as it should be, yes. So the problem is with your grub config.
Your entries should look like:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.20-ck1 root=/dev/hda2
The "root (hd0,0)" line tells grub to look for kernels relative to the first partition of the first HDD. If you did _not_ have a separate '/boot' partition, and '/' was the first partition then you would use:
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-ck1 root=/dev/hda1
so I have to change all grub.conf entries from /boot/<kernelimage> to /<kernelimage> ?
If your kernels are in /boot on a separate partition, yes.
I didn't change the partitions or sth. else in partitioning and so on. How is it possible that this path changes?
I am not sure what you think has changed. Again, "root (hd0,0)" tells grub to look for kernels relative to the first partition of the the first HDD (ie: your '/boot' partition). When grub is running nothing is mounted, so "/boot/whatever" is not a valid path, as there is no "/boot", only the files located on (hd0,0) (/dev/hda1).