Problems with English? Questions? Vocabulary, grammar... Post here :)
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Actually, I don't think those words are considered "outdated", they're just "formal". Examples of "outdated" English words would be things like "thee" "thou" "wouldst", "forsooth", etc.
They are outdated, because I say so!! "thee", at least, is still in use in some dialects, though the rest are indeed old. Anyone who is not a lawyer and uses "hereby" in normal speech will likely be invited to step outside to discuss the matter further with a representative of the shaven headed classes. At least they will at my local!
But AFAIR we have been taught that an is to be used before every vowel. u is a vowel here, so why do you say second one is correct ?
Like you, I am not native english speaker. But I would guess that "a" or "an" will depend on which noun it is supporting. Hence "a useful thing". Here "a" is not used for "useful" but "thing". This is my assumption.
With the a/an thing, I've always gone by the pronunciation of the word, rather than its spelling. For example, "useful" might start with a vowel, but it isn't pronounced "oosful", it's "yoosful", and since the pronunciation is unusual (long "yoo" as opposed to short "oo" or "uh"), you would use "a" instead of "an".