manwichmakesameal, thanks for taking the time replying.
I also tried booting from an USB stick. Booting starts, but fails quite early in the process.
The first three lines of the output (see initial message) indicate that there's something wrong with the chipset initialization. Maybe somebody with some deep knowledge about this matter knows a way how to workaround/fix it.
Ubuntu 13.10 is booting fine, so does mac os x. Btw, here's a link to what a "retina crap book pro"