Okay, for those of you who may encounter a similar problem, here's how I resolved this:
I booted off the CD and went into rescue mode ("linux rescue" at the boot prompt).
I then made a backup of my fstab.
I then edited the fstab, and removed the reference to the LVM volume group (/video in my case).
I then rebooted normally.
Everything of course came back up just fine, but without the /video partition - but with LVM support.
I was then able to run fsck on the disk like so:
First I located the backup superblocks on my system like so:
mke2fs -n /dev/VolGroup/Video
The -n option makes it simply show what it WOULD do if you asked it to create a new file system, but doesn't actually create the file system itself.
From the list of backup superblocks this generated, I picked the lowest one (I have no idea if it makes a difference which one you choose, I guessed, it worked).
I then ran fsck using the -b option to specify the backup superblock to use:
fsck -b 32768 /dev/VolGroup/Video
This then went through and found all the problems in the drive and fixed them. Note that you might want to use the "yes" option (-y) to have it automatically say yes to everything - I'm paranoid and didn't, but it did mean hitting "y" about 4,983 times - good thing for fast key repeat rates. :-)
Once fsck was done fixing everything, I put back my backup copy of fstab which included the reference to my /video mount and rebooted.
Voila! All data back and happy.
At this point I backed everything up and am investigating the cause of this problem - dmesg has some scary stuff about hard drive errors in it so I suspect I have a hard drive on the verge of death. Nevermind that they are all less than 3 months old. Grr. In either case, I was successfully in recovering 100% of my needed data (note that I had a backup of these files, so I only had to get about 40GB out of the 900GB - just the new files that had changed since last backup. I suspect some data may have been lost in this process, but apparently, none that I needed).
Also, in the process of resolving this issue someone pointed out to me that I am mixing both SATA and PATA drives in the same LVM, plus multiple brands with minor size differences. LVM seems to support this, but I had several people tell me they suspect that is the cause of this failure. If anyone has anything else to add to that, let me know - I suspect a hardware failure, not a configuration problem is the cause here.
Next up: Replacing this unreliable LVM mess with a software RAID 5 solution. Gonna need some bigger drives.....