If you have some liveCD around (or maybe even better, another linux install on this machine), you could try booting it, chrooting your Debian install and reinstalling the kernel image from there. Something like this:
mount /dev/debian_partition /mnt/debian
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/debian/etc
chroot /mnt/debian /bin/bash
apt-get install --reinstall linux-image-<your_current_kernel_version>
EDIT: Didn't read your last comment. It's strange it doesn't work when it's only the older modules the ones which you deleted, but you could try reinstalling your current kernel all the same (or maybe the older ones, in case it doesn't work).