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It turned out that our new ISP's dns servers do not work yet.
I did not realize this, because I was in the misbelief that we could not browse the net then.
So, being a newbie to firewalls, I blamed my ruleset for days before trying just to ping the servers.
By the way: how can we browse the net when all the dns servers given in resolv.conf are out of service?
As concerns the firewall, after some days of efforts reading through the freebsd, ipfw, nat manuals and google searching the web, I could somehow grasp how nat and ipfw work together.
It took quite long until I found it in the nat manual, that nat, being usually in front of the ruleset, does its job on the IP package, then gives it back to ipfw to check the remaining rules on the modified package.
Finding this in the manuals finally, I could setup our internet firewall on my own.
It works well, so am quite satisfied with it (default deny, just allowing in the services used, allowing everything out, making use of ipfw advance stateful conf).