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By macondo at 2004-12-01 20:09
This is a revised version of the previous article. In this one, i use the business card netinstaller (32 MB) and my hardware is different. Nothing much has changed, Etch now is the stable version and Lenny the testing one.

There are many ways of installing Debian, this is just how I do it.

Remember, if you break Debian, you get to keep both parts

You can download the netinstaller CD from:

debian-40r0-i386-businesscard.iso (32 MB)
http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/4.0_r0/i386/iso-cd/

The type of installation I had in mind for this machine is a minimal one,
installing light apps that will render my system lean and mean. So, there
will be no KDE, Gnome, splash screens, or little stars titillating on the
desktop. I will install IceWM, because it's my favorite; but XFCE4, WMaker,
Fluxbox, Openbox, Ion3, are equally fast and excellent. I will install the
kernel 2.6, my pc is standard, there is nothing complex.

During this installation you will have the options to install Etch (stable),
Lenny (testing), or Sid (unstable).

MY HARDWARE

Processor Sempron 2600+
512 MB RAM
SiS integrated sound card
SiS900 integrated NIC
SiS 5300 integrated video card (32 MB video ram)
40 GB IDE hd (7200)
Samsung SyncMaster 753s
PS/2 generic 3-button mouse
Logitech iTouch keyboard (spanish)
Monitor's horizontal frequency (30-70)
Monitor's vertical refresh rate (50-160)
ADSL connection

You can find your monitor's frequencies from its manual or googling for its
brand and model, or manufacturer. DO NOT USE MINE.

It is a desktop, so users with laptops, adjust accordingly.

AT THE BOOT PROMPT

I inserted the installation CD and rebooted, it brought me to the boot
prompt. There, I pressed F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, and F8. I read
everything, and chose the following boot parameters:

boot: expert noapic nolapic bootkbd=es
debian-installer/framebuffer=false

expert26
will allow me to have more control on the installation, there will
be more options to choose from and it will choose kernel 26.

noapic nolapic
will allow me, together with the installation of 'apmd' (the apm
daemon), to shutdown my machine which has an old BIOS, and refuses to
shutdown automatically otherwise.

bootkbd=es
will allow me to use my spanish keyboard from the start.

debian-installer/framebuffer=false
will tell the installer NOT to install the framebuffer, which hangs my
system and has affected my fonts in the past.

If you don't understand any of this, it's OK, just type:
expert (press Enter)

From here on, after choosing an answer (YES, NO, CONTINUE, CANCEL) with
the TAB key, press the key Enter.

All set, I press Enter, the installation begins, the first screen comes
up...

1. Choose your country or region <Panama>
Select a keyboard layout <PC-style or PS2 connector>
keymap to use <Spanish>

Note: here you choose the language for your keyboard from the list given.

2. DETECT AND MOUNT CD-ROM
Modules <Continue>
Prompt for modules parameters <No>
Start PCI card services (unless you use a laptop) <No>
Unable to load some modules <Continue>

3. CD-ROM DETECTED <Enter>
LOAD INSTALLER COMPONENTS FROM CD <Enter>
Installer components to load <Continue>
Loading components... <it takes a few seconds>

4. DETECT NETWORK HARDWARE <Enter>
Module to load <Continue>
(here it shows the NIC module to be installed)
Prompt for module parameters <No>
Start PC card services <No>

Unable to load some modules <Continue>

5. CONFIGURE THE NETWORK <Enter>
Auto-configure network with DHCP <Yes>
(it configures it...)
Hostname <write something short, e.g. debian> <Enter>
Domain name <write your isp domain, e.g. pacific-bell.net>

6. DETECT HARDWARE <Enter>
Prompt for module parameters <No>
Start PC card services <No>

Unable to load some modules <Continue>

7. PARTITION DISKS <Enter>

a. Erase entire disk (hda)
b. Manually edit partition table

I've got no other OS, so I choose 'a' <Enter>
If you've got Windows or another operating system, choose 'b'.
The installer will guide you.

The next screen will show the different partition schemes:

If you chose the option 'a' above, the next screen will be:

8. PARTITIONING SCHEMES

a. All files in one partition (RECOMMENDED FOR NEWBIES)
b. Desktop machine
c. Multi-user workstation

The installer will partition the hard drive automatically, without the
user's intervention. Here's how it will partition depending on your choice:

a. It will create a root partition (/) and a swap one.
b. A root partition, swap, and /home.
c. It will create the following partitions:

/
/usr
/var
swap
/tmp
/home

IMPORTANT: Newbies choose 'a' and go to:

Finish partitioning and write changes to disk <Enter>

Of course, I chose "c", always looking for something different, I ended
up with this:

Ext 3 / 280 MB
Ext 3 /usr 5 GB
Ext 3 /var 3 GB
Ext 3 swap 390 MB
Ext 3 /tmp 399 MB
Ext 3 /home 31 GB


When you are thru with all the partitions, back at the original partitioning
screen, go down with the arrow, ALL THE WAY DOWN TILL THE END OF THE SCREEN,
otherwise, you might miss the following line, select it, so it's
highlighted:

Finish partitioning and write changes to disk <Enter>

The next screen list the partitions to be formatted, and it says NO by
default for matters of safety, so you don't accidentally make a mistake..

Choose <YES>

It begins formatting...

8. INSTALL THE BASE SYSTEM <Enter>

It starts installing the base system... 3/4 of the way in, it pop up a
dialog box, asking you what kernel you want, make your choice.

kernel-image 2.6.8-1-386 (is selected by default)
kernel-image 2.4.27-1-386

After this is finished, you're back at the main installation menu, and
the next line is:

9. INSTALL THE GRUB BOOT LOADER ON A HARD DISK <Enter>

If you chose Ext3, ReiserFS, or JFS, GRUB will be the way to go, install it
to the MBR or choose another place of your liking.

Note: newbies install GRUB to the MBR.

The CD ejects, close the CD-ROM <Continue> <Enter>

The machine starts rebooting...

It comes back with the screen:

11. DISPLAY INTRODUCTORY MESSAGE <Enter>
Welcome to your Debian System <Enter>

12. CONFIGURE YOUR TIME ZONE <Enter>
Is the hardware clock set to GMT? <No>
Are you in the Central America/Panama time zone? <Yes>
Is this information correct? <Yes>

Note: as you can see, i live in Central America, your questions will be
according to your place of residence, America, Europe, Asia, etc.

13. SET UP USERS AND PASSWORDS <Enter>
Enable shadow passwords? <Yes>
Root password <enter it>
Re-enter your password
Create a normal user account now? <Yes>
Enter a full name for the new user <you can type anything>
Enter a user name for your account <do it>
Type a password for the new user <do it>
Re-type the same password <do it>
Set the hostname (already done) <Enter>

14. CONFIGURE APT <Enter>
It gives a list of options <ftp>

DEBIAN DISTRIBUTION TO USE

-stable
-unstable
-testing

Choose Stable

Use non-free software? <Yes> (personal decision)
Mirror country <choose one close to you>
Choose the Debian mirror to use <choose one close to you>

Here, the screen goes black (console), and APT starts checking the
repositories for the Debian version you chose, it takes a few minutes.

Add another APT source? <No>
Use security updates from security.debian.org? <Yes>

15. SELECT AND INSTALL PACKAGES <Skip this line>

Here, I skipped this line with the arrow and installed my apps at the
end of the installation with apt-get.

16. CONFIGURE THE MAIL TRANSFER AGENT <Enter>
In the next few questions, just take the default answers, nothing to
write.

17. FINISH CONFIGURING THE BASE SYSTEM <Enter>
Thank you for using Debian <Enter>
It takes you to the console (black screen) with a debian login.

debian login: <write your username> Enter
password: <write your user password> Enter
(now you've become a user)

Example:
macondo@debian:~$

we have to become root in order to be able to install packages and edit
files. So type 'su' (switch user)

macondo@debian:~$ su <Enter>
password: <write your ROOT password> Enter
(now you're ROOT)

Example:
debian:/home/macondo#

Ok, now I install my apps so I can enter the X environment.

The first thing I do is:

# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade

OR

# apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade

After this, your repositories' database will be updated and the apps
already installed in the base installation, upgraded to the latest
version of the Debian version, you installed.

Now, I'm going to install some basic packages necessary to enter the X
environment, and also necessary to function in everyday life.

# apt-get install xorg iceweasel aterm icewm icewm-themes menu firehol xfe
xchat xzgv unzip zip bzip2 artwiz-cursor synaptic artwiz-cursor
xfonts-artwiz numlockx unclutter sudo xtrlock deborphan debfoster
localepurge xfonts-terminus sysvconfig joe scrot elinks openoffice.org
antiword icedove

Replace icewm with your favorite window manager.

If you like kde or gnome just install:

# apt-get install xorg kde-base
or
# apt-get install xorg gnome-core

In the HOWTO section of this site, there are a couple of manuals
explaining how to configure IceWM and Flubox.

After you come back, it's time to configure X, I follow the instructions
from the article:

The Very Verbose Debian Installation Walkthrough
http://osnews.com/story.php?news_id=2016
Sections 9 and 10

It takes all of 15 minutes to read, and will save you hours if not days. The
reason I tell you to read this, it's because nobody can explain this better
than Clinton De Young.

After reading this 2 sections, it'll take you just a few minutes to
configure X.

So, I say NO to auto-detection

17. CONFIGURATION OF X
Select the driver for your video card <sis>
Note: if you have problems with card's module choose "vesa" it will work
with almost every card.

Enter an identifier for your video card <sis 5300>
Read the next screen <Accept>
Please enter the video card bus identifier <leave blank>
Enter the amount (in kb) of memory for your video card <32768>
NOTE: # of MB X 1024

Please select the set of rules XKB to be used <xorg>
Read next screen <Accept>

Please select your keyboard model <PC 105>

Here, you can enter "PC104" for an American keyboard or "PC105 for a
European.

Please select the language (keymap) <es>
here you can enter 'us' for American, or 'gb' for British.

Please select your variant <leave blank>
Read the next screen <Accept>
Please select the options for your keyboard <leave blank>

Please show the port for your mouse </dev/psaux>
Please choose the option that better describes your mouse <ImPS/2>
this will activate the scroll wheel on your mouse.

Emulate a 3-button mouse? <no>
Activate the mouse wheel? <Yes>

Enter an identifier for your monitor <Samsung SyncMaster 753s>
Is your monitor LCD? <No>
Please select a method to configure your monitor <Advanced>
Enter your horizontal frequency range <30-70>
Enter your vertical refresh frequencies <50-160>
Choose your resolutions <1024x768>
Please choose the color depth in bits <16>
Read next screen <Accept>
Select the Xorg modules that should be loaded by default <leave as
is>
Next screen write Files section by default <Yes>
Write section DRI by default in the configuration file? <Yes>

18. FIREWALL CONFIGURATION

After I'm thru configuring X, the firewall (firehol) configuration is next,
we don't want to go in the internet without a firewall. Debian comes with
the editors nvi, nano, and ed by default. For this, I need to edit the file:
/etc/default/firehol

So, as root, I launch the text editor:

# nano /etc/default/firehol

and edit it to look like this:

START_FIREHOL=YES
FIREHOL_LOG_MODE="ULOG"

save/exit

in other words,

Ctrl+O <Enter>
Ctrl+X

Note: the letters 'o' and 'x' are typed in small caps.

The first line will activate Firehol, the second will divert the log
messages somewhere else, so the console screen will be free of them,
which is marvelous if you use "startx" to enter the X environment.

Next:

# firehol-wizard <Enter>

Press Enter when advised to do so, let it run, and that's it.

(Thank you Dead Parrot)

We have to reconfigure the locales:

LOCALES

# dpkg-reconfigure locales

A list will come up, go down the list with the arrows, and select with
the spacebar all the instances of en_US (about 3) and any other
language you use, choose OK, and on the next screen, choose your
environment language (the language all your instructions will be in)
select OK and the locales will be generated.

19. SWITCHING KERNELS

The default kernel during the installation was:

kernel-image-2.6.-386

but my processor is an AMD K7, so i install the appropriate kernel:

# apt-get install linux-image-2.6-k7

If you have a PII, PIII, or P4, install this kernel:

# apt-get install linux-image-2.6-686

if you got several processors choose the smp flag at the end.

For a list of kernels available:

$ apt-cache search linux-image

After installing the new kernel you have to reboot. If you installed GRUB,
you have to do nothing, no questions to answer, it will install, update the
grub menu automatically, at the end, all you have to do is:

# reboot

It can't get any better than this!

Later on, you can get rid of the old kernels with Synaptic or Debfoster.

Now i fix my booting:

$ nano .xinitrc

it gives an empty file, i add the following lines:

#!/bin/sh

numlockx &
unclutter &
icewm

Note: if you installed gnome, replace the last line with:

gnome-session

or

kdestart (if you installed kde)

save/exit from your editor

When you reboot, you will come back with a new kernel, some basic
applications, and a working firewall. You'll come to the console, in text
mode. At the prompt, type you username, press Enter, in the next line, type
your password, press Enter, at the next prompt, type 'startx', press Enter.

$ startx <Enter>

A few seconds later, you ought to be in your favorite window manager.

I hope this helps a little bit.
Good Luck!

Revised on 16 April 2007
Luis Lima aka macondo
ironwindow2001 [at] yahoo.com

Changelog:
  • 06/05/2007 - Updated to take into account that Etch is now the new Stable and lenny the new testing
  • 06/05/2007 - Updated to take into account changed hardware
  • 06/05/2007 - Updated to take into account change to Xorg from XFree86
_________________

by sk545 on Tue, 2005-01-11 19:26
coolness. The only problem is that they keep changing the installer every time they have a update...so many of the steps will get outdated.


  



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